Intel Galileo Gen 2 is a powerful Arduino compatible development board that carries Intel Quark SoC X1000 32-bit processor running at 400Mhz. It supports wide range of peripherals like mini-PCI express, Ethernet, microSD, USB host and client. It has several memory options that are 256MB DDR3, 512kb embedded SRAM, then follows 8MB NOR flash, 8kb of EEPROM and finally microSD with up to 32GB. Fun part is that board is programmable from Arduino IDE. Besides Arduino UNO functionality board can be programmed with one of several Linux versions.
Mike Arduino on Intel community wrote pretty good tutorial on how to set up Linux image on Intel Galileo and how to program it.
He used Iot Devkit Image which he loaded in to microSD card. Once loaded he set up a serial connection to PC via FTDI cable. Through terminal he was able to configure network connection which later was used to access Linux through SSH. He wrote couple python scripts to demonstrate its working. Once Linux was proven to work, then he wrote a simple Arduino program which would call a python script to record system time to file. Once you get used to it, you can build pretty cool projects with Arduino simplicity and Linux power.