Intel Galileo is an Arduino on steroids. It comes with powerful Intel Atom processor running Arduino Linux distribution. It has most components that normal computer would need including USB host and client, Ethernet and Mini PCIe port that can accept many more peripherals like WLAN from laptop. And most important that it can be programmed from Arduino IDE. Øyvind have shared his latest weather station project built on this platform. He used popular DHT11 temperature/humidity sensor to get readings.
He wanted to log readings to SD card so before it was possible he had struggled a bit while he found proper format for it. FAT32 formatting did the trick. The code is really short and simple to follow.