Microphone is another analog signal sensor which converts sound wave energy into electrical signal. Some microphones does this directly (dynamic microphones), some need additional electrical source like electret. Electret microphone is simply a capacitor which one moving diaphragm which by moving changes capacitance. It can be captured with simple RC circuit. But the signal is very low and barely detectable with microcontroller ADC. This is why normally there are microphone preamp used that gains microphone signal, filters it and gives a DC offset so it would fir perfectly to full rail of ADC input.
David actually have made two iterations of microphone preamp circuits. Previous was NPN transistor based which performed pretty good, but this time he wanted to bet even better signal and so he used operational amplifier. He selected TLC272 opamp which can work from single rail and down to 3V which makes it ideal choice for 5V and 3.3V microcontroller circuits. He found that this circuit performs pretty good even on low sound and produces lower noise than NPN version. Bellow you can see how he tested the circuit.